5.2->5.3 migration script

Wrote an article on DevZone about migration script from php 5.2 to 5.3. This little script can save some time when you consider to move your codebase to run under 5.3 (which you should :) ).

This script doesn’t do everything I’d like it to do – specifically, I’d like to make it try to figure out all kinds of messy reference scenarios, but I’m not sure how yet. And if you have other idea, please comment there or here. It’s on public git, so you can take it and modify if you wish.

syntax I miss in PHP

Here are some syntax additions I’d like to see in PHP:

1. a()()
When a() returns a callable object (such as a closure) the second set of brackets would call it. That would allow to write some neat code. I am working on a patch for that but it’s a bit harder than I thought.

2. a()[$x]
This is kind of obvious, I wonder why don’t we have it? Should also be able to be an lvalue, though unless a() returns by-ref or return value is an object it may not do what one wanted.

3. foo(1,2,,4)
Syntax to skip a parameter in a call, which then will be substituted with the default as defined by the function. Would come handy if you have function with many defaults, and you only want to change the last one but leave the rest alone – now you don’t have to look up the actual default’s values.

4. foo(“a” => 1, “c” => 2, “d” => 4)
Named parameters call, which allows you to specify parameters in arbitrary order by name. Would allow to build nice APIs which could accept wider ranges of parameters without resorting to using arrays. That’d also imply call_user_func_array() would accept named arguments.
The problem here might be what to do with unknown arguments – i.e. ones that the function did not expect. I guess the function could just ignore them.

5. $a = [“a”, “b” => “c”];
I’d really like to have short array syntax. Yes, I know it was rejected so many times already, but I still like it.


After a long string of delays, PHP 5.3 is finally out.  On the course of last 2 years, I was pretty sure a number of times that it will happen next month the latest, but there always were good reasons to postpone it. Now finally it’s officially out. I think it’s a huge step for PHP. Download it and try it!

Some major new features in 5.3:

  1. Namespaces! They didn’t end up exactly as I thought they would but they are a major feature PHP was missing for a long time, and I’m very curious to see how it works out in big projects.
  2. Closures and anonymous functions! PHP now has first-class functions, and you can do all kinds of crazy stuff with it. Or just make your code easier to read and maintain :)
  3. Garbage collection. PHP engine, being refcount-based, always has had a slight problem with reference loops. Even though usually it was not a big issue since at the end of the request everything is cleaned up, for long-running PHP applications not based on short request pattern it became a problem. Not anymore – now the engine knows to clean up such loops.
  4. Late static binding – it’s somewhat exotic thing for people that never encountered it, but was very burning issue for people that did need it. Basically, when class Foo extends class Bar, and the method func() defined in Foo is called as Bar::func(), there was no way to distinguish it from Foo::func(). Now there is. This allows to implement all kinds of cool patterns like ActiveRecord.
  5. Intl extension in core – lots of functions to allow you to internationalize your application.
  6. Phar in core – now you can pack all the application in one neat file and still be able to run it!

Also in 5.3:

  1. Nowdocs – same as heredocs, but doesn’t parse variables. Excellent feature for somebody that wants to include bing chunk of text into the script which can happen to have $’s etc. in it.
  2. ?: shortcut. That’s simple – $a?:$b is $a if $a is true, otherwise it’s $b.
  3. goto. Yes, I know. But now we have it too. Deal with it. :)
  4. mysqlnd – native PHP-specific mysql driver.

Last but definitely not least – tons of performance improvements, bug fixes, etc. Download it today! :)

PHP performance tips from Google

I saw a link on twitter referring to PHP optimization advice from Google. There are a bunch of advices there, some of them are quite sound, if not new – like use latest versions if possible, profile your code, cache whatever can be cached, etc. Some are of doubtful value – like the output buffering one, which could be useful in some situations but do nothing or be worse in others, and if you’re a beginner generally it’s better for you to leave it alone until you’ve solved the real performance problems.

However some of the advices make no sense at best and are potentially harmful at worst. Let’s get to it:

First one: Don’t copy variables for no reason. I don’t know what the author intended to describe there, but PHP engine is refcounting copy-on-write, and there’s absolutely no copying going on when assigning variables as they described it:

$description = strip_tags($_POST['description']);
echo $description;

I don’t know where it comes from but it’s just not so, unless maybe in some prehistoric version of PHP. Which means unless you’re going back to 1997 in a time machine this advice is no good for you.

Next one: Avoid doing SQL queries within a loop. This actually might make sense in some situations, however the code examples they give there is missing one important detail that makes it potentially harmful for beginners (see if you can spot it):

$userData = [];
foreach ($userList as $user) {
$userData[] = '("' . $user['first_name'] . '", "' . $user['last_name'] . '")';
$query = 'INSERT INTO users (first_name,last_name) VALUES' . implode(',', $userData);

Of course, I can not know that $user was not sanitized. Maybe the intent was that it was. But if you give such example and target beginners, you should say so explicitly, every time! People tend to copy/paste examples, and then you get SQL injection in a government site.

Another thing: most of real-life PHP applications usually do not insert data in bulk, except for some very special scenarios (bulk data imports, etc.) – so actually in most cases one would be better off using PDO and prepared statements. Or some higher-level frameworks which will do it for you. But if you roll your own SQL – sanitize the data! This is much more important than any performance tricks.

Next one: Use single-quotes for long strings. PHP code is parsed and compiled, and any possible difference in speed between parsing “” and ” is really negligible unless you operate with hundreds of megabyte-size strings embedded in your code. If you do so, your quotes probably aren’t where you should start optimizing. And of course, using caching (see below) eliminates this difference altogether.

Next one: Use switch/case instead of if/else. This makes no sense since switch does essentially the same things as if’s do. See for yourself, here is the “if” code:

0       2     A(0) = FETCH_R(C("_POST")) [global]
1       2     A(1) = FETCH_DIM_R(A(0), C("action")) [Standard]
2       2     T(2) = IS_EQUAL(A(1), C("add"))
3       2     JMPZ(T(2), 7)
4       3     INIT_FCALL_BY_NAME(function_table, C("addUser"))
5       3     Au(3) = DO_FCALL_BY_NAME() [0 arguments]
6       4     JMP(16)
7       4     A(4) = FETCH_R(C("_POST")) [global]
8       4     A(5) = FETCH_DIM_R(A(4), C("action")) [Standard]
9       4     T(6) = IS_EQUAL(A(5), C("delete"))
10      4     JMPZ(T(6), 14)
11      5     INIT_FCALL_BY_NAME(function_table, C("deleteUser"))
12      5     Au(7) = DO_FCALL_BY_NAME() [0 arguments]
13      6     JMP(16)
14      7     INIT_FCALL_BY_NAME(function_table, C("defaultAction"))
15      7     Au(8) = DO_FCALL_BY_NAME() [0 arguments]
16      9     RETURN(C(1))
17      9     HANDLE_EXCEPTION()

Here is the “switch” code:

0       2     A(0) = FETCH_R(C("_POST")) [global]
1       2     A(1) = FETCH_DIM_R(A(0), C("action")) [Standard]
2       3     T(2) = CASE(A(1), C("add"))
3       3     JMPZ(T(2), 8 )
4       4     INIT_FCALL_BY_NAME(function_table, C("addUser"))
5       4     Au(3) = DO_FCALL_BY_NAME() [0 arguments]
6       5     BRK(0, C(1))
7       6     JMP(10)
8       6     T(2) = CASE(A(1), C("delete"))
9       6     JMPZ(T(2), 14)
10      7     INIT_FCALL_BY_NAME(function_table, C("deleteUser"))
11      7     Au(4) = DO_FCALL_BY_NAME() [0 arguments]
12      8     BRK(0, C(1))
13      9     JMP(15)
14      9     JMP(19)
15     10     INIT_FCALL_BY_NAME(function_table, C("defaultAction"))
16     10     Au(5) = DO_FCALL_BY_NAME() [0 arguments]
17     11     BRK(0, C(1))
18     12     JMP(20)
19     12     JMP(15)
20     12     SWITCH_FREE(A(1))
21     13     RETURN(C(1))
22     13     HANDLE_EXCEPTION()
No.     CONT    BRK     Parent
0         20          20           -1

You can see there’s a little difference – the latter has CASE/BRK opcodes, which act more or less like IS_EQUAL and JMP, but their plumbing is a bit different, but in general, code is the same (you could even argue “switch” code is a bit less optimal, but that is really the area you shouldn’t be concerned with before you can read and understand the code in zend_vm_def.h – which is not exactly a beginner stuff.

Another thing that the author absolutely failed to mention and which should be one of the very first things anybody who cares about performance should do – is to use a bytecode cache. There are plenty of free ones (shameless plug: Zend Server CE includes one of them – all the performance improvements for $0 :) and you don’t have to change a bit of code to run it.

Now, I understand Google is not a PHP shop like Yahoo or Facebook or many others. But this article is signed “Eric Higgins, Google Webmaster” and one would expect something much more sound from such source. And in fact there are a lot of blogs and conference talks on the topic and lots of community folks around that I am sure would be ready to help with such article – I wonder why wasn’t it done? Why apparently the best advice we can find from Google is either trivial or useless or wrong?

I think they can do much better, and they should if they take “making the web faster” seriously.

P.S. After having all this written, I also found a comment from Gwynne Raskind, which I advise to read too.

Y-Combinator in PHP

Since PHP 5.3 now has closures, all things that other languages with closures do should also be possible. One of them is having recursive closures. I.e. something like this:

$factorial = function($n) {
   if ($n <= 1)
     return 1;
     return $n call_user_func(__FUNCTION__$n 1);

which does not work. One of the ways to do it is to use Y combinator function, which allows, by application of dark magic and friendly spirits from other dimensions, to convert non-recursive code to recursive code. In PHP, Y combinator function would look like this:

function Y($F) {
    $func =  function ($f) { return $f($f); };
    return $func(function ($f) use($F) {
            return $F(function ($x) use($f) {
            $ff $f($f);
            return $ff($x);

And then the factorial function would be:

$factorial Y(function($fact) {
    return function($n) use($fact) {
        return ($n <= 1)?1:$n*$fact($n-1);

Which does work:

var_dump($factorial(6)); ==> int(720)

Of course, we could also cheat and go this way:

$factorial = function($n) use (&$factorial) {
      if ($n <= 1)
        return 1;
        return $n $factorial($n 1);

Doing Y-combinator in PHP was attempted before (and here), but now I think it works better. It could be even nicer if PHP syntax allowed chaining function invocations – ($foo($bar))($baz) – but for now it doesn’t.

If you wonder, using such techniques does have legitimate applications, though I’m not sure if doing it in PHP this way is worth the trouble.


The PHP 5.3 release process has officially started with alpha1. Which hopefully means we’d have release in about 2-3 monthes.

This 5.3 release has two huge features that I think will have big influence on the future of PHP – namespaces and closures. There’s also late static binding, which allows to do all kinds of cool tricks, new cool extensions, new faster re2c-based parser, and many other smaller improvements.

Big thanks to everyone who helped to create it, provided feedback, helped with tests, documentation, etc. I think this version will be very successful. And separate thanks to Lukas who made this release from “erm… sometime soon” into “full speed ahead”!

duck operator

Crazy idea for today – operator to check conformance to specific interface without actually implementing it. Why one would want that?
Well, if you are into duck typing style of programming, it may be interesting for you to have an object that implements certain set of functions, but not necessary declares it at class definition. Languages like Smalltalk do it all day along, so why PHP couldn’t? The idea is it looks like this:

interface Cow {
  function moo();
  function eatGrass();
/* somewhere else */
class MooingGrassEater {
  function moo() {/*stuff */}
  function eatGrass() {/*stuff */}
  /*stuff */
/* somewhere else */
function CowConsumer($classname) {
$foo = new $classname();
if($foo implements Cow) {
  echo "Behold the cow:";
} else {
  echo "$classname is not a cow!";

implements here is our duck operator. Note that unlike instanceof, no formal relationship is required, but only practical implementation. So another name would be “common law marriage operator” ;)

Of course, this one would be anathema to “strict OO” camp, so if you subscribe to that, just ignore this post :)

Two challenges to this idea are:

  1. __call() – we have no way to know what __call does. So either we ignore it or say “ok, __call does everything”. I’d go for the latter.
  2. Performance. To check duck implementation one basically would have to match method lists, which amounts to number of is_callable calls equal to the number of methods in interface being checked.

Actually, PHP uses this style sometimes – see, for example, user defined streams. But there’s no nice way to work with it from the consumer side.